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TheGita Tamil – Chapter – 17

TheGita Tamil – Chapter – 17


Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 1

Arjuna asked the Lord:
What becomes of those people who do not obey the rules outlined by the Holy Scriptures yet perform ritual sacrifices with great faith and devotion? Are these people considered Saatvic (representing good), Rajas (representing passionate activity) or Tamas (immersed in total darkness and evil)?

अर्जुन बोले —–हे कृष्ण ! जो मनुष्य शास्त्र विधि को त्याग कर श्रद्बा से युक्त्त हुए देवादि का पूजन करते हैं, उनकी स्थिति फिर कौन से है ? सात्विकी है ; अथवा राजसी किंवा तामसी ।। १ ।।


Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 2

The Blessed Lord said:
O Arjuna, man possesses three kinds of faith that are born from his nature and these are: faith born out of light and goodness; faith born out of fire, or passion; faith that is born out of darkness or dullness. Now my dear devotee and friend, I shall describe all of the faiths.

श्री भगवान् बोले —– मनुष्यों की वह शास्त्रीय संस्कारों से रहित केवल स्वभाव से उत्पन्न श्रद्बा सात्विको और राजसी तथा तामसी —–ऐसे तीनों प्रकार की होती है । उसको तू मुझ से सुन ।। २ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 3

The faith of every individual on earth O Arjuna is determined by their own nature. Man is made up of his own faith. Whatever a man’s faith is, in reality, that is what he is.

हे भारत ! सभी मनुष्यों की श्रद्बा उनके अन्त:करण के अनुरूप होती है, यह पुरुष श्रद्बामय है, इसलिये जो पुरुष जैसी श्रद्बा वाला है, वह स्वयं भी वही है ।। ३ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 4

Beings who are pure in heart and mind, who are good- natured and believe in following the path of light, these people worship the Gods of light. Individuals who are constantly active in earning material wealth and power and those people who constantly indulge in sin and corruption while living in evil darkness, worship the evil spirits.

सात्विक पुरुष देवों को पूजते हैं, राजस पुरुष यक्ष और राक्षसों को तथा अन्य जो तामस मनुष्य हैं, वे प्रेत और भूत गणों को पूजते हैं ।। ४ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 5

Those men who are selfish, corrupt, conceited, and false; whose actions are totally controlled by lust and passion; who perform terrible rituals that are forbidden by the Holy Scriptures.

जो मनुष्य शास्त्र विधि से रहित केवल मन:कल्पित घोर तप को तपते हैं तथा दम्भ और अहंकार से युक्त्त एवं कामना, आसक्ति और बल के अभिमान से भी युक्त्त हैं ।। ५ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 6

…and those who foolishly suppress the pure and natural life-giving powers within their bodies, as well as, at the same time, torture Me, who lives within their bodies; Arjuna, understand that the minds of these particular beings are filled with nothing but darkness and evil.

जो शरीर रूप से स्थित भूत समुदाय को और अन्त:करण में स्थित मुझ परमात्मा को भी कृश करने वाले हैं, उन अज्ञानियों को तू असुर स्वभाव वाले जान ।। ६ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 7

O Arjuna, even one of the most important necessities in life for all beings, namely food, belongs under three categories. Similarly, customs such as religious sacrifices, all acts of self-discipline, and self-restraint as well as the giving of gifts, can all be individually placed under three separate divisions.

भोजन भी सबको अपनी-अपनी प्रकृति के अनुसार तीन प्रकार का प्रिय होता है । और वैसे ही यज्ञ, तप और दान भी तीन-तीन प्रकार के होते हैं । उनके इस पृथक्-पृथक् भेद को तू मुझसे सुन ।। ७ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 8

For the man who is pure in heart and mind, the only foods that are dear to Him are pure foods that promote good health, mental power and physical strength, vitality, joy and cheerfulness in life. These are foods which have good taste, that are soothing and nourishing for the body, and which makes a man’s heart content.

आयु, बुद्भि, बल, आरोग्य, सुख और प्रीति को बढ़ाने वाले रस युक्त्त, चिकने और स्थिर रहने वाले तथा स्वभाव से ही मन को प्रिय —- ऐसे आहार अर्थात् भोजन करने के पदार्थ सात्विक पुरुष को प्रिय होते हैं ।। ८ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 9

The foods that appeal to the passionate people are those that are sour, bitter, salty, spicy, dry, very warm, painful (to eat), and at times cause pain and sickness after they are consumed.

कड़वे, खट्टे, लवण युक्त्त् बहुत गरम तीखे, रूखे, दाहकारक और दुःख, चिन्ता तथा रोगों को उत्पन्न करने वाले आहार अर्थात् भोजन करने के पदार्थ राजस पुरुष को प्रिय होते हैं ।। ९ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 10

Those people who strive on darkness and evil, eat foods that are impure, often stale and tasteless, rotten, lacking in freshness, and generally unfit to use during Holy offerings to Me.

जो भोजन अधपका, रस रहित, दुर्गन्ध युक्त्त बासी और उच्छिष्ट है तथा जो अपवित्र भी है, वह भोजन तामस पुरुष को प्रिय होता है ।। १० ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 11

A pure sacrifice is one where the religious offerings (made to Myself, the Almighty) are made with true love and adoration for Me. They are offerings that are made in accordance with the rules or Holy laws in our religious scriptures, with no expectation of rewards resulting from the performance of these sacrifices, and offerings that are made from the heart and only with the intention that it is one’s duty to perform this religious sacrifice.

जो शास्त्र विधि से नियत, यज्ञ करना ही कर्तव्य है —- इस प्रकार मन को समाधान करके, फल न चाहने वाले पुरुषों द्वारा किया जाता है, वह सात्विक है ।। ११ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 12

However, O Bharata, a sacrifice that is done purely with the intention of receiving some reward, or done for the sake of display, is known as a Rajas sacrifice, which is an impure sacrifice.

परन्तु हे अर्जुन ! केवल दम्भाचरण के लिये अथवा फल को भी दृष्टि में रखकर जो यज्ञ किया जाता है, उस यज्ञ को तू राजस जान ।। १२ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 13

Finally, My dear Devotee, the lowest type of sacrifice that exists is that which is performed by those that have darkened their inner-beings and are known to be of the dull, Tamas nature. When Tamas-nature people make sacrificial offerings, it is generally not in accordance with the holy rules of sacrifice, no gifts of pure food are distributed (Prashadam), no holy hymns are chanted, and the sacrifice is performed with no religious faith in Me whatsoever.

शास्त्र विधि से हीन, अन्नदान से रहित, बिना मन्त्रों के, बिना दक्षिणा और बिना श्रद्धा के किये जाने वाले यज्ञ को तामस यज्ञ कहते हैं ।। १३ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 14

The worship of the Gods of Light; of the twice-born; worship and respect given to the religious teacher and the wise; worship and respect for all that is pure and true, all that represents justice and righteousness, virginity and non-violence, all of this brings tranquility and harmony to the body.

देवता, ब्राह्मण, गुरु और ज्ञानीजनों का पूजन, पवित्रता, सरलता, ब्रह्मचर्य और अहिंसा —–यह शरीर सम्बन्धी तप कहा जाता है ।। १४ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 15

Speaking only those words which do not offend other beings, words which are truthful, pleasant, beautiful. beneficial and above all, words that exist only in the Holy Scriptures (Vedas), represent the harmony of speech.

जो उद्बेग न करने वाला, प्रिय और हित कारक एवं यथार्थ भाषण है तथा जो वेद शास्त्रों के पठन का एवं परमेश्वर के नाम जप का अभ्यास है —– वही वाणी सम्बन्धी तप कहा जाता है ।। १५ ।।


Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 16

Peace and tranquility of the mind, harmony and confidence in oneself, love, caring and gentleness towards others, and purity of the heart, are all the elements which create harmony of the mind.

मन की प्रसन्नता, शान्त भाव, भगवच्चिन्तन करने का स्वभाव, मन का निग्रह, और अन्त:करण के भावों की भली भाँति पवित्रता —-इस प्रकार यह मन सम्बन्धी तप कहा जाता है ।। १६ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 17

If these three types of harmony are practised with supreme faith, a pure heart, truthful intentions, without any desire for rewards, and with a balanced mind and a peaceful soul, this is considered to be pure and total harmony and a definite sign that a person has chosen to follow the Saatvic path of light and “goodness.”

फल को न चाहने वाले योगी पुरुषों द्वारा परम श्रद्बा से किये हुए उस पूर्वोक्त्त तीन प्रकार के तप को सात्विक कहते हैं ।। १७ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 18

However, My best of friend, he who falsely performs self-discipline and restraint purely for the sake of reputation, high honour, and for show, is considered to be impure and of the Rajas (passionate) nature. This type of self-restraint is unstable and lasts only temporarily.

जो तप सत्कार, मान और पूजा के लिये तथा अन्य किसी स्वार्थ के लिये भी स्वभाव से या पाखण्ड से किया जाता है, वह अनिश्चित एवं क्षणिक फल वाला तप यहाँ राजस कहा गया है ।। १८ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 19

When self-control is incorrectly performed by a dull person and results simply in self-torture for the person who is trying to restrain himself, or when it is performed for the sake of causing injury to another person, then this self-control leads to nowhere but into sheer darkness and further along the path of the Tamas Guna.

जो तप मूढ़ता पूर्वक हठ से, मन, वाणी और शरीर की पीड़ा के सहित अथवा दूसरे के अनिष्ट करने के लिये किया जाता है —- वह तप तामस कहा गया है ।। १९ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 20

O Arjuna, hear now that what I have to say about gifts: A pure gift is that which is given with purity and kindness in the heart, given to the right person at the right time, given in the proper place, and above all when we expect nothing in return for the gift.

दान देना ही कर्तव्य है —- ऐसे भाव से जो दान देश तथा काल और पात्र के प्राप्त होने पर उपकार न करने वाले के प्रति दिया जाता है, वह दान सात्विक कहा गया है ।। २० ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 21

However Arjuna, when the gift is given with the expectation of receiving something in return, when it is also given for the sake of receiving future rewards or when the gift is given unwillingly from one person to another, this gift is considered impure and presented by a person of the Rajas nature.

किंतु जो दान क्लेश पूर्वक तथा प्रत्युपकार के  प्रयोजन से अथवा फल को दृष्टि में रख कर फिर दिया जाता है, वह दान राजस कहा गया है ।। २१ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 22

A gift that is given to an unworthy (evil) person, at an improper time and place, given not from kindness in the heart, but with feelings of extreme pride and with contempt towards the other person, this gift, O Arjuna, is one that has evolved from darkness and has come from a person who is of the Tamas nature.

जो दान बिना सत्कार के एवं तिरस्कार पूर्वक अयोग्य देश काल में और कुपात्र के प्रति दिया जाता है, वह दान तामस कहा गया है ।। २२ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 23

AUM, TAT, SAT (literal translation: the Lord who is the truth). Dear Partha, each one of these sacred words represents the three stages of the Brahman (the Brahman is the single word that describes where all Brahmins (spiritual teachers) have originated from). From the Brahman also evolved the Holy Scriptures (Vedas) and is today also known as the Supreme Spiritual Sacrifice.

ओउम्, तत्, सत् —- ऐसे यह तीन प्रकार का सच्चिदानन्दधन ब्रह्म का नाम कहा है ; उसी से सृष्टि के आदि काल में ब्राह्मण और वेद तथा यज्ञादि रचे गये ।। २३ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 24

Therefore, dear Arjuna, he who is a devoted follower of the Brahman, begins all acts of spiritual sacrifice, gift-giving, or self-perfection (which is really the achievement of inner-peace with the self), with the word Aum (Aum or the Lord is the very beginning of all things in the universe).

इसलिये वेद मन्त्रों का उच्चारण करने वाले श्रेष्ठ पुरुषों की शास्त्र विधि से नियत यज्ञ, दान और तप रूप क्रियाएँ सदा ‘ओउम्’ इस परमात्मा के नाम को उच्चारण करके ही आरम्भ होती हैं ।। २४ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 25

The word Tat describes the actual performance of the Spiritual Sacrifice, the presentation of gifts, and all acts of self perfection and self-harmony. The performance of these acts (by those who seek true, infinite liberty from the world), without wishing for any rewards in return are done by the true followers of the Brahman, in accordance with the Holy laws, as stated in the Scriptures. If these acts are done properly, they lead a person further along the path towards Me, the Supreme Goal and Supreme Spirit.

तत् अर्थात् ‘तत्’ नाम से कहे जाने वाले परमात्मा का ही यह सब है, इस भाव से फल को न चाहकर नाना प्रकार की यज्ञ तपरूप क्रियाएँ तथा दानरूप क्रियाएँ कल्याण की इच्छा वाले पुरुषों द्वारा की जाती हैं ।। २५ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 26

Sat (derived from term Satya), is the word that literally means Supreme Truth and goodness. It is the end or final step in the actual Spiritual sacrifice and signifies the ultimate or final goal to be reached at the end of performing this religious ritual namely, to please Me in order to attain unity with Me. Since I am the Supreme Truth, O Arjuna, when a particular (religious) task is performed and has been properly completed, the result of this spiritual work is the attainment of the Supreme Truth or the attainment of Myself, the Lord.

‘सत्’ ——-इस प्रकार यह परमात्मा का नाम सत्य भाव में और श्रेष्ठ भाव में प्रयोग किया जाता है तथा हे पार्थ ! उत्तम कर्म में भी ‘सत्’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।। २६ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 27

Everlasting faithfulness is Spiritual Sacrifice, Self-harmony, and the giving of gifts, lead one on the pathway to achieving Sat, O Arjuna. This is a fact because all of these divisions of faith ultimately lead to Me, the Eternal Truth.

तथा यज्ञ, तप और दान में जो स्थिति है, वह भी ‘सत्’ इस प्रकार कही जाती है और उस परमात्मा  के लिये किया हुआ कर्म निश्चय पूर्वक सत् ऐसे कहा जाता है ।। २७ ।।

Chapter – 17 – Shloka – 28

If any of these acts, O Arjuna, whether it is Spiritual Sacrifice, Self-perfection or the offering of pure and pleasant gifts, is done without faith and good incentives, Asat (all that is untrue and representative of darkness) is attained. By achieving Asat, one has really gained absolutely nothing, O Son of Kunti, because I hold the acts performed in Asat as useless, and having no importance in this world or in the afterworld.

हे अर्जुन ! बिना श्रद्बा जे के किया हुआ हवन, दिया हुआ दान एवं तपा हुआ तप और जो कुछ भी किया हुआ शुभ कर्म है —– वह समस्त ‘असत्’ —– इस प्रकार कहा जाता है ; इसलिये वह न तो इस लोक में लाभदायक है और न मरने के बाद ही ।। २८ ।।


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